Etymology1865, from philatélie, coined by French stamp collector Georges Herpin (in Le Collectionneur de Timbres-poste, Nov. 15, 1864) from φιλο- (philo-, love of) + ἀτέλεια (atelīa), the closest word he could find in Ancient Greek to the concept of "postage stamp" (from a- "without" + telos "tax"). This word serves as a reminder of the original function of postage stamps, now often forgotten: the cost of letter-carrying formerly was paid by the recipient; stamps indicated it had been pre-paid by the sender, thus the letters were "carriage-free".
the study of postage stamps, postal routes, postal history, etc.
portal Philately Philately is the study of revenue and postage stamps. This includes the design, production and uses of stamps after they are authorized for issue, usually by government authorities, the most common one being postal authorities. Although many equate it with stamp collecting, it is a distinct activity. For instance, philatelists will study extremely rare stamps without expecting to own copies of them, whether because of cost, or because the sole survivors are in museums. Conversely, stamp collecting is the acquisition of stamps, at times without regard for origin or usage.
EtymologyThe coining of the word "philately" in its French form has been circumstantially attributed to Georges Herpin in the publication Le Collectionneur de timbres-postes, Vol. 1, November 15, 1864. It is formed from the Greek words philos (friend) and ateleia (exempt from charge, or "franked"), which is a stretch to relate to the study of stamps, but the alternatives of "timbrophily" & "timbrology" or "timbrologist" never caught on.
The origin of philately is in the observation that in a pile of stamps all appearing to be the same type, closer examination reveals different kinds of paper, different watermarks embedded in the paper, variations in color shades, different perforations, and other kinds of differences. Comparison with records of postal authorities may or may not show that the variations were intentional, which leads to further inquiry as to how the changes could have happened, and why. To make things more interesting, thousands of forgeries have been produced over the years, some of them very good, and only a thorough knowledge of philately gives any hope of detecting the fakes.
One explanation for all the variation is that stamp printing was among the early attempts at large-scale mass production activity by postal authorities. Even in the 19th century, stamps were being issued by the billions, more than any other kind of manufactured object at the time.
Areas of philatelyBasic or technical philately, then, is the study of the technical aspects of stamp production and stamp identification. It includes the study of
Topical, also known as Thematic, philately is the study of what is depicted on the stamps. There are hundreds of popular subjects, such as birds, insects, sports, maps, and so forth. Interesting aspects of topical philately include design mistakes (such as use of the wrong picture on a US stamp honoring Bill Pickett), design alterations (for instance, the recent editing out of cigarettes from the pictures used for US stamps), and the stories of how particular images came to be used (one US stamp from the 1920s shows a Viking ship apparently flying an American flag, but this was not a mistake; the stamp depicted a modern replica).
Postal history concentrates on the use of stamps on mail. It includes the study of postmarks, post offices, postal authorities and the process by which letters are moved from sender to recipient, including routes and choice of conveyance. A classic example is the Pony Express, which was the fastest way to send letters across the United States during the few months that it operated. Covers that can be proved to have been sent by the Pony Express are highly prized by collectors.
Cinderella philately is the study of objects that look like stamps but aren't stamps. Examples include Easter & Christmas Seals, propaganda labels, and so forth.
The results of philatelic study have been extensively documented by the philatelic literature, which includes many books and nearly 15,000 different periodical titles.
Philately is basically an activity of reading and study, but the human senses typically need augmentation. The stamps themselves are handled with stamp tongs or tweezers so as to preserve them from large, clumsy, and possibly greasy fingers. A strong magnifier reveals details of paper and printing, while the odontometer or perforation gauge helps distinguish a "perf 12" from a "perf 13".
While many watermarks can be detected merely by turning the stamp over, or holding it up to the light, others require the services of watermark fluid, such as benzine (not to be confused with benzene, which is toxic), carbon tetrachloride or trichloro-trifluoro-ethane that "wets" the stamp without dissolving gum or ink. Other techniques, such as using coloured light filters have been attempted in an effort to avoid the use of toxic substances.
Experts evaluating the authenticity of the rarest stamps use additional equipment such as fluoroscopes. Some stamps are printed with ink which fluoresces when exposed to ultraviolet light. Ultraviolet light sources are also used to examine stamps and postal history for signs of repairs or various types of faults.
- flagicon World Fédération Internationale de Philatélie
- flagicon Europe Académie Européenne de Philatélie
- flagicon United States American First Day Cover Society
- flagicon United States American Philatelic Society
- flagicon United States American Topical Association
- flagicon United States National Postal Museum (USA)
- flagicon United States Old World Archaeological Study Unit
- flagicon Australia Australian Philatelic Federation
- flagicon Canada British North American Philatelic Society
- flagicon Cyprus Cyprus Philatelic Society
- flagicon New Zealand Royal Philatelic Society of New Zealand Inc
- flagicon South Africa Thematic Collecting Group in South Africa
- flagicon United Kingdom Royal Philatelic Society London
- flagicon United Kingdom National Philatelic Society UK
- flagicon United Kingdom Philatelic Traders Society (London)
- flagicon Wales Welsh Philatelic Society
- flagicon Argentina Féderación Argentina de Entidades Filatélicas
- flagicon Greece Hellenic Philatelic Federation
- flagicon Greece Hellenic Philatelic Society
- flagicon Norway Federation of Norwegian Philatelists
- flagicon Russia The Rossica Society of Russian Philately
- flagicon Ukraine Odessa City Collectors' Society
- Leon Norman Williams, Fundamentals of Philately (American Philatelic Society, 1990) ISBN 0-933580-13-4
- Richard McP. Cabeen, Standard Handbook of Stamp Collecting (Harper & Row, 1979)
philately in Bosnian: Filatelija
philately in Bulgarian: Филателия
philately in Czech: Filatelie
philately in Danish: Filateli
philately in German: Philatelie
philately in Estonian: Filateelia
philately in Modern Greek (1453-): Φιλοτελισμός
philately in Spanish: Filatelia
philately in Esperanto: Filatelo
philately in Basque: Filatelia
philately in French: Philatélie
philately in Galician: Filatelia
philately in Croatian: Filatelija
philately in Indonesian: Filateli
philately in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Philatelia
philately in Italian: Filatelia
philately in Georgian: ფილატელია
philately in Lithuanian: Filatelija
philately in Ligurian: Filatelia
philately in Macedonian: Филателија
philately in Dutch: Filatelie
philately in Japanese: 郵便学
philately in Malay (macrolanguage): Filateli
philately in Norwegian: Filateli
philately in Polish: Filatelistyka
philately in Portuguese: Filatelia
philately in Romanian: Filatelie
philately in Russian: Филателия
philately in Albanian: Filatelia
philately in Slovak: Filatelia
philately in Slovenian: Filatelija
philately in Serbian: Филателија
philately in Finnish: Filatelia
philately in Swedish: Filateli
philately in Vietnamese: Tem học
philately in Turkish: Filateli
philately in Ukrainian: Філателія
philately in Chinese: 郵票研究